This article examines the present state of the theoretical bases of program evaluation by applying key analytical criteria proposed by Kuhn and by Lakatos for the study of scientific disciplines. The study identifies the main theoretical and empirical components of the discipline, clarifies their interactions, and discusses their influence on the development of the discipline. The application of the analytical model leads to the acknowledgement that evaluation is currently at the third stage of development of the disciplines, scientific revolution, which assumes an upcoming change in the discipline's dominant foundations. However, the structuring of knowledge, the relationship between theory and empirical research, and the epistemological schism prevailing in the social sciences contribute to keeping evaluation in a never-ending state of scientific revolution.