Theories of change (ToCs) are models of how an intervention is expected to bring about changes in results of interest—the benefits. Robust ToCs spell out the conditions under which the intervention should “work,” that is, bring about or contribute to the desired benefits. But rarely does the ToC address issues of the future sustainability of the benefits from the intervention. The article discusses how ToCs can adopt a sustainability lens and, along with the intervention, become sustainability-aware, by undertaking a sustainability analysis, exploring the sustainability of the various key ToC elements, and seeking to identify and support sustainability mechanisms.

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