In response to growing demands for accountability and the benefits associated with continual improvement, private and public sector organizations are increasingly applying aspects of performance management. This article provides a synthesis of the literature as it pertains to the principles and practices underlying performance measurement, auditing, evaluation, and reporting. In bringing these elements together to comprise a performance management system, it is argued, an organization can demonstrate accountability and facilitate continual improvement. The article concludes with a discussion of how this can be achieved, namely through the refinement of strategic direction, reporting on key measures, and periodic reviews of performance in a systematic manner.