Research on knowledge application and program theory-driven evaluation are two types of activity associated with research which involve close collaboration between researchers-evaluators and stakeholders and also facilitate maximal use of research results. In this article, first we succinctly present theoretical models of knowledge application emphasizing the conceptual bases and strategic elements common to both approaches. Specifically we examine the crucial role of tacit knowledge and distinguish between the individual and organizational levels in the utilization of knowledge generated by research and evaluation. We examine and discuss the advantages of program theory-driven evaluation as a knowledge application strategy. We suggest that conceptual developments in the field of knowledge application research can also contribute to the advancement of program evaluation.