In this article, we discuss the roles played by participants and the processes involved in a provincial educational standards setting exercise for a large-scale assessment of student skills. The perspectives offered are those of a policy maker outside the exercise and of an insider participant who describes his experience of the standard-setting exercise from within. A number of issues involved in selecting delegates, in empanelling stakeholder representatives, and in designing standard-setting exercises are considered. Panelists are characterized as anonymous jurors rather than as subject-matter experts. An exercise will reconcile competing organizational and social values when defining standards as points for educational decision making. We conclude by describing alternate notions of representativeness, stakes, and significance.