The Delphi as a Naturalistic Evaluation Tool
A Phased Approach for Conducting Program Evaluations
To be useful, evaluations have to be sufficient rigor that they are credible. Also, they must be timely -- that is, available when needed for decisions making. One way of addressing the "timeliness" issue is through the adoption of a phased approach for the conduct and reporting of evaluations. Under this approach, studies are broken into discrete phases, each addressing and reporting formally to the client on specific evaluation issues and each laying the groundwork for the next phase. Thus, management does not have to wait until the completion of the entire study for timely information and analysis on these issues. Completion of each phase provides a decision point on whether to proceed with the ext phase, and if so, in what specific manner.
Auditing Systems and Practices Relating To Effectiveness Of Operations In Federal Crown Corporations
Recent changes to the Financial Administration Act (F.A.A.) introduced a requirement for value-for-money audits of federal Crown corporations through a process called "special examination". A special examination is designed to result in an opinion by the examiner as to whether there is reasonable assurance that there are o significant deficiencies in the systems and practices maintained by the corporation to provide reasonable assurance that its assets are safeguarded and controlled, its resources are managed eccally and efficiently and its operations are carried out effectively. This paper explores the examination requirements relating to the effectiveness of operations by reviewing the background to the legislation, clarifying the meaning of "effective operations" in this context and identifying the types of systems and practices that contribute to effectiveness. The paper concludes that a results-based approach would be most direct with respect to giving an opinion on the adequacy of systems and practices maintained to provide reasonable assurance of effective operations. Consequently such an approach can benefit from the skills and methods associated with program evaluation and effectiveness auditing. In addition, it is likely that the implementation of this legislation will focus increased attention on the essential role that evaluation and performance measurement can play within the Crown corporations themselves.
Le choix des critères pour l'évaluation des sociétés d'État
L'évaluation s'étend des programmes ministériels aux sociétés d'États. Transposées à cet univers, les méthodes usuelles doivent s'adapter. L'article porte sur les problémes associés à la détermination des objectifs assignés aux SE et à leur stabilité. À partir d'une analyse des SE québécoises du domaine énergétique de 1977 à 1983, l'article débouche sur le constat que ces difficultés sont majeures et que, loin de constituter des accidents de parcours, elles sont vraisemblablement inhérentes à cet instrument de politique. Les SE pourraient constituer, de façon systématique, d'excellents instruments du gouvernement en termes de dissimulation et de report des choix, en termes de réduction d'imputabilité. Quelques possibilités de solution sont suggérées, impliquant surtout un élargissement des méthodes d'évaluation par des emprunts à la théorie des organisations.
The Estimation of Net Income Redistribution from Three Federal Child Benefit Programs
A simple random sample of 1982 Federal Income-Tax returns was analyzed to estimate the net redistribution of income arisingfrom Federal Family Allowance payments, Child Tax Exemptions, and an imputation of the incremental tax burden borne by taxpayers to finance these programs. Cross-tabulations are presented by family-income quintile, family type and sex of individual. The impact of adjusting family-income quintile assignments for family size is discussed. The net income redistribution is shown to be progressive with respect to adjusted family income.
The Assessment of Penological Effectiveness; The Rapsheet Model of Evaluation
The evaluation of correctional programs has relied too much on "rapsheets." Although this model of evaluation is suitable for some programs, for most the results will distort the realities of good programs, often with the unfortunate effect of ending the program unnecessarily. I present here a critique of a well-known evaluation of group counselling in a California prison. The evaluation followed the "rapsheet" model and the program was terminated, Lessons form this needless misfortune are offered and some more realistic alternatives are suggested.
The Catalogue of Goals for Residential Treatment: An Individualized Outcome Measure for Residential Children's Programs