Knowledge Required to Perform the Duties of an Evaluator

The purpose of this study is to link tasks performed by evaluators to the knowledge required to perform those tasks. It first describes the role of evaluation and the evaluation process in as general terms as possible. Second, it classifies the tasks identified in the process according to the phases of the evaluation process and the nature of the task roles within an evaluation. This gives two categories of tasks: technical and strategic. Those tasks are then assigned to modules of knowledge required to perform an evaluation. Third, a correlation table is developed showing the links between the various phases of the evaluation, the task categories, the tasks, and the knowledge modules. Lastly, a list of courses is suggested to form the nucleus of a study program in evaluation.

Extent of Evaluation Activity and Evaluation Utilization of CES Members

This article reports surveys results obtained from 69.3% of the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES) members listed in the 1988 membership directory. Only 310 (58.4%) of the 530 survey respondents had completed a Canadian program evaluation in the years 1985 through 1987. Of those who had completed an evaluation during this period, 11.3% were unaware of how their results had been utilized. The remaining 275 CES members supplied data oil the extent of their evaluation activity that demonstrated high variability between CES members and revealed that a minority were full-time evaluators. Data on the extent of utilization showed extensive conceptual, instrumental, and persuasive utilization.

Evaluating Participation in Community Programs: An Empowerment Paradigm

This article introduces the paradigm of empowerment as being more appropriate for evaluation of community participation than the paradigm of efficiency. A variety of critical theories have been proposed as an expression of the empowerment paradigm. These theories, when applied to community evaluation problems, assume that there is conflict and unequal distribution of power between community groups. This unequal power is reflected in groups' different abilities to make independent choices to meet their needs. Evaluation under the empowerment paradigm focuses on determining whether program reforms alter power relations between groups. An evaluation model for community participation in health promotion programs is presented as an illustration of the empowerment paradigm.

Sensitivity Analysis in Multi-Criteria Decision Aid: A Demonstration of Child Care Need Assessment

Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) can provide a useful framework for many types of evaluation problems. The article focuses on sensitivity analysis in MCDA and uses a sample problem of establishing priorities for child care service. The main steps in MCDA applications are outlined and some detail is provided on three types of aggregation procedures and on sensitivity analyses appropriate for each. Two general strategies for sensitivity analysis are discussed: comparative analysis, which is suitable for data on any scale; and calculative analysis, which requires cardinal data. Examples show how sensitivity analysis can be used to concentrate mediation efforts on the most important assumptions of an evaluation.

A Program Logic Model Approach to Conceptualizing Social Service Programs

The issue of accountability in the social work has resulted in the convergence of research and practice principles at program and case-levels of practice. Program logic models have surfaced in social work practice arenas in efforts to develop systematic conceptualizations of program services. However, most program logic models have emphasized program-level, or administrative, utility. More effort is needed to explore the benefits of systematic service conceptualization for front-line practitioners. A program logic model approach to service conceptualization that has case level utility is presented. A case example is used to demonstrate the application of a program logic model for direct practice.

Construction d'un programme en santé communautaire : du projet planifié à l'action implantée

This article describes the implementation of a program seeking to transform a low-rent, "social housing" establishment for the elderly into an establishment offering "sheltered housing." Modifications made to the program during the course of implementation are addressed by the authors as natural occurrences, inherent in the construction of any innovative program and its installation in a new context. The analysis focuses on processes of mutual adjustment between the program and the milieu. The results demonstrate the iterative nature of actors' rationality, showing how certain choices rejected at the time of planning may gradually became acceptable, or even imperative, during the implementation process. The authors reconsider the sequence of evaluation, particularly the role of evaluating the relevance of a program during the development phase.

Estimating the Percentage of Workforce Health Programs in Ontario from Results of a Mail Survey at Different Follow-Up Stages

Selection bias due to non-respondents is a common concern in mail surveys. The authors developed a procedure to estimate characteristics of non-respondents based on when subjects respond using data from a survey of personnel managers from large Ontario companies. The study was designed to assess the nature and extent of employee assistance programs (EAPs) and health promotion initiatives. Results indicated that personnel managers who responded quickly were significantly more likely to have an EAP than those who responded later. Estimates of the proportion of non-respondents with EAPs were made by extrapolation, based on when people responded. The estimated proportion of non-responders with EAPs was nearly identical to the actual proportion as determined by follow-up telephone interviews. Analyses also showed that companies with EAPs were significantly more likely to have health promotion programs Extrapolation procedures were therefore used to estimate the proportion of companies with these other health promotion motion initiatives.

Assessing Quality in R&Amp;D Laboratories: Bibliometrics, Peer Review and Organizational Surveys

A review of R&D evaluation outlines six approaches: strategic audits, constituency reviews, peer reviews, cost-benefit analyses, organizational assessments, and bibliometric indicators. To study the quality of research outputs, the authors present a comparative research plan combining peer reviews, bibliometric indicators, and organizational assessments. They provide results of peer reviews, bibliometric analyses, and organizational assessments. Using data collected from 53 laboratories around the world, they advance a tax of laboratories as an additional guide to the selection of appropriate criteria for R&D performance evaluation. A clustering technique identifies six unique types or profiles of laboratories: regulation/control, project management, science frontier, service, devices, and survey.