A Decision Analysis of the Introduction of a New Senile Cataract Surgery Technology in Ontario: A Historical Analysis
The author uses decision analysis methods to examine the implicit clinical and public policy of' providing most elderly patients with a new surgical technology treating senile cataracts. The analysis suggests that the limitations of the "best" empirical evidence adversely affect decision making. Failure to measure patient preferences is a key source of decision-making uncertainty. Hence, the nearly universal provision of the new technology is questionable. Because many clinical interventions have not been rigorously evaluated, decision analysis may have a significant role in clinical and public decision making.
The Process of Developing a Program Evaluation of a Community Policing Initiative
The evaluation of the Victoria Police Department's Community Police Station (Co.P.S.) Program measured the strategy's success in controlling and preventing crime within the community. This article illustrates how the evaluation assessed the impacts of the Co.P.S. Program on its eight distinct objectives. The conceptual framework on which this evaluation was based is described, as well as the comprehensive and eclectic research designs. Four key perspectives were used to examine the impacts: crime rates, the citizenry, the Co.P.S. volunteers, and the Police Department personnel. Some findings are highlighted.
Evaluating Program Effectiveness in Health Education Research
Health education planning models developed over the past two decades were examined with respect advocated methods of evaluation of community health education programs. Health outcome evaluation has been traditionally shunned in favour of analyzing behaviour modification regardless of health outcomes. We demonstrate that both behaviour modification evaluation and pre and post-intervention analysis of associated health outcomes are necessary for comprehensive program conclusions to be drawn.
Ethical Considerations in Evaluation
The aim of this article is to explain one way of viewing the nature of and relationships among morality, rationality, politics, and evaluation.
Evaluating Leadership Training Programs for High School Students: A Notion Whose Time has Come
The effectiveness of an extra curricular leadership training program for highschool students was assessed. This quantitative program evaluation was both formative and summative in design. Accessibility sampling procedures were utilized it) this post-hoc study. Results suggested that the weekend training marathon format using the experiential approach was a most effective method of teaching leadership skills and improving self-esteem in highschool students. The program not only had a positive impact on the student participants, but was also a benefit for the school as a whole.
An Evaluation of Outpatient Clinic Services for Patients with Panic Disorder
The study is an evaluation of treatment services that are provided to patients with panic disorder at an outpatient mental health clinic A mail survey was used to contact patients who had completed therapy at the clinic between January 1987 and October 1989. Responses were obtained from 21 individuals (representing a 70% response rate). Results indicated that 14 of 21 patients (66%) no longer meet diagnostic criteria for panic disorder. However, even among these successfully treated patients, some continued to have occasional panic attacks, and others acknowledged a significant level of psychological distress. in general, patients expressed high levels of' satisfaction with the clinic services, and they provided important feedback concerning the effectiveness of different treatment modalities. On the basis of these results the authors discuss a number of suggestions for improving the operation of the clinic.
Evaluating Inter-Organizational Approaches to Service Delivery: A Case Example of the Family Violence Service Project in Kent County, Ontario
Program evaluators are well versed on the difficulties and complexities involved in assessing programs in single-human-service organizations. This article describes a model that was effective in evaluating an inter-organizational program, the Family Violence Services project, which was administered collaboratively by two agencies in southwestern Ontario. The model included a sequential planning and implementation process, and much collaboration between the evaluation team, the. staff, and administrators of the project. The evaluation strategy was a qualitative-naturalistic one and utilized a conceptual framework derived from the literature oil inter-organizational relations. The article speaks to a distinct void in the literature on evaluating inter-organizational approaches to service delivery.
Responders vs. Non-Responders to a Mail Survey: Are They Different?
One of the major methods of data collection used in both formative and outcome evaluations and descriptive studies is the survey method. With survey methods, the issues of generalizability and representativeness of the data are crucial, particularly when response rates are low. A common survey method is the use of mailed questionnaires, however, even when care is taken to select potential respondents randomly, the validity of the responses depends on the willingness of all sectors of the population to respond. In most instances, no effort is made to follow up individuals who do not respond, to ensure that they do not differ on substantive issues from individuals who have responded. The authors describe the process of following up university students who chose not to respond to a mail survey of their life-styles and drug use patterns, and a comparison of this group with a group of students who did respond to the initial request.
Stakeholder Pressures and Organizational Structure for Program Evaluation
Stakeholder influence on program evaluations will vary with the importance of the program to target populations, their awareness of the evaluation exercise, and their perception of its likely impact. The organizational structure for evaluation within an institution provides a channel through which pressures exerted by stakeholders impinge directly upon the evaluation process. The author examines the evolution of the program evaluation structure within a federal government agency to illustrate the advantages and drawbacks of formalizing stakeholder involvement.