Introduction to the Special Issue
This introduction to evaluation research on the criminal justice system provides a summary of the criminal justice system in Canada, discusses problems relating to research in the area, and introduces the articles contained in the issue.
Canadian Evaluation Research in Criminal Justice: A Content Analysis
One of the most important areas to which evaluation research has made a contribufion is criminal justice. This article presents a descriptive content analysis of all criminal justice evaluations published in the Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminologie since these journals began publishing in 1959 and 1908, respectively Several important findings emerged from the analysis: the number of evaluations appearing has increased signilicantly; not withstanding the diversity of programs within the Canadian criminal justice system, the area of corrections accounted for almost two thirds of all articles; statistical analyses were absent in the majority of articles; research has concentrated heavily on programs in Ontario and Quebec; and clear policy implications were seldom drawn from the evaluation study's results. These and other findings are discussed.
The Impact of Evaluation Research on Policing Policy in Canada and the United States
Over the past 15 years, a number of evaluation studies have had a great impact on police policy. This research has helped to bring about a shift from a largely reactive policing style that involves the police working on their own, to a proactive style that involves the community. This article reviews sonic of the research done on police-based strategies and programs, community-based crime prevention programs, and community policing programs.
An Impact Evaluation of the Edmonton Neighbourhood Foot Patrol Program
This article assesses the success of the Edmonton Neighbourhood Foot Patrol Program (NFPP) an innovative community policing program in reducing repeat calls-for-service, improving public/user satisfaction with police and increasing the job satisfaction of NFPP constables. The findings of an impact evaluation indicated that the Edmonton NFPP was successful in terms of these three objectives.
Factors Affecting the Disposition of Sexual Assault Cases Before and After a Change in Sexual Assault Laws
Bill C-127, An Act to amend the Criminal Code in relation to Sexual Offenses and other Offenses Against the Person, was proclaimed by parliament on January 4, 1983. An evaluation was conducted in six Canadian cities to determine the impact of the new law. This article describes the findings from one site - Winnipeg, Manitoba - and centers Oil the processing of sexual assault cases as they proceed through the criminal justice system. Files from the police, Crown, courts and Sexual Assault Centre were used to obtain study information. A pre-reform/post-reform comparison was conducted to analyze the extent to which changes could be attributed to the legislation. Although results of the evaluation indicate no difference in conviction rates that call be attributed to the legislation, there are changes in the types of cases prosecuted.
An Evaluation of the Victim/Witness Assistance Program, Ministry of the Attorney General of Ontario
The Victim/Witness Assistance Program of Ontario provides assistance and support to crime victims and witnesses who are participating in a criminal justice proceeding. Piloted in 1987, the program was carefully monitored by the Ministry of the Attorney General to determine its usefulness to victim/witnesses and its effects on the operating environment of the criminal justice system. This article describes the various evaluation activities during the early stages of the program, and their effects of program development. It then highlights one evaluation tool: a survey of client satisfaction to generate preliminary data on the program's impact for decision-makers.
Meta-analysis of treatment programs for young offenders: the effect of clinically relevant treatment on recidivism, with controls for various methodological variables
Evaluation of an institution-based treatment program for child molesters
The evaluation of Bill C-67, an Act to amend the Parole Act and the Penitentiary Act
Evaluating parole supervision: its use for policy and programs and implications for evaluation
This article reviews evaluations done on the effects of parole supervision. Conclusions are offered on policy and research.