Methodological and conceptual challenges in studying evaluation process use

This article discusses methodological and conceptual challenges in empirically studying process use. The main difficulty lies in disentangling cause (here the evaluation process) and effects (here indicators of process use). The evaluation researcher not only needs to take into account all relevant factors regarding the evaluator, the participants, the evaluation context, and the evaluation approach and implementation, but also needs to base the research on a valid operationalization of process use.