The objective of this study is to determine whether a middle alternative in the response choices to a questionnaire influences the reliability and validity of survey responses. A 32-item questionnaire regarding maternity care was administered to a sample of 1,390 persons consisting of 597 physicians, 723 nurses, and 70 midwives. The sample was randomly divided into two groups, one receiving a questionnaire with five answer choices, including a middle option, and the other receiving a similar questionnaire but without the middle option.
This study has three objectives: (a) to compare socio-demographic characteristics of dropouts and completers of a health promotion program, (b) to assess each group's satisfaction with specific aspects of the program, and (c) to investigate the reasons for dropout. Data were collected by means of individual structured interviews with 19 dropouts and 20 completers randomly selected. Results show that the two groups do not differ on socio-demographic variables. Completers were significantly more satisfied than dropouts with only a few aspects of care.
This paper proposes a systematic definition of resistance to program evaluation. A conceptual framework presents the three main dimensions of that phnon: (1) the dynamics of resistance, (2) the persons who could resist and (3) the main phases of an evaluation process where resistance can occur. According to the general model suggested, when person are asked to collaborate in an evaluation, they are faced with a context defined by sources of resistance and facilitative conditions. If their assessment is negative, they will resist.