Putting Theory of Change into Use in Complex Setting

This paper argues that theory of change can be used to help stakeholders
in agricultural research for development projects collectively agree on problems and
visions of success. This helps them feel greater ownership for their project, motivation
to achieve outcomes, and understanding of how to do so. However, the dynamic is
damaged if projects are pushed to be too specific too early about the outcomes for
which they are to be held accountable.

Participatory impact pathways analysis: a practical application of program theory in research-for-development

The Challenge Program on Water and Food pursues food security and poverty alleviation through the efforts of some 50 researchfor- development projects. These involve almost 200 organizations working in nine river basins around the world. An approach was developed to enhance the developmental impact of the program through better impact assessment, to provide a framework for monitoring and evaluation, to permit stakeholders to derive strategic and programmatic lessons for future initiatives, and to provide information that can be used to inform public awareness efforts.